Electroweak anniversary

October 17, 2017

Today marks 50 years since Steven Weinberg submitted his famous paper, “A Model of Leptons”, to Physical Review Letters. In this short paper (of just 3 pages) he proposed a theoretical framework within which the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force could be understood as two different aspects of a single underlying force, dubbed “electroweak”.

The paper was actually published on 20 November 1967, and it has had an interesting history. At first it was ignored, garnering just 2 citations in the first 3 or 4 years. When this neglect changed, it changed dramatically, and for several decades “A Model of Leptons” was the most cited paper in the literature on high-energy, fundamental physics. It won Weinberg the Nobel Prize in Physics (shared with Salam and Glashow) in 1979.

The idea that the fundamental forces of nature (electromagnetism, weak, strong, and gravitational) might be different aspects of a single, simpler force that could be described more economically has been, it is fair to say, one of the leading ideas in physics in the last 100 years or so. Einstein tried to unify electromagnetism and gravity, and huge piles of ink were lavished on the effort to unify electromagnetism with the weak and the strong forces into a “grand unified theory”. String theory, for several decades now the sexiest branch of theoretical physics, is another example of this same ambition.

But it is noteworthy that Weinberg’s proposal is the only successful example of unification that we have managed to find.

Here is a good history of the paper’s composition and reception from CERN Courier.

2 Responses to “Electroweak anniversary”

  1. V Says:

    I’ve also seen people post this article:
    http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/70138

    I’ve been meaning to read this and the article you posted.

  2. cburrell Says:

    Thanks for that; it looks like a good interview.


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