It is a long-standing problem in cognitive science and philosophy of mind to explain how physical states of the brain are related to mental states. I was reading through The Brothers Karamazov last night and was surprised to find Dmitri Karamazov giving it a try:
Imagine: it’s all there in the nerves, in the head, there are these nerves in the brain (devil take them!) . . . there are little sorts of tails, these nerves have little tails, well, and when they start trembling there . . . that is, you see, I look at something with my eyes, like this, and they start trembling, these little tails . . . and when they tremble, an image appears, not at once, but in a moment, it takes a second, and then a certain moment appears, as it were, that is, not a moment — devil take the moment — but an image, that is, an object or an event, well, devil take it — and that’s why I contemplate, and then think . . . because of the little tails, and not at all because I have a soul or am some sort of image and likeness, that’s all foolishness. Mikhail explained it to me, brother, just yesterday, and it was as if I got burnt. It’s magnificent, Alyosha, this science!
Well, now that you put it that way…